Universal design for learning (UDL)

UDL is a concept which was developed by CAST in the USA. UDL recognises that learner variability is the norm not the exception.  As a consequence, curricula which are designed as a ‘one size fits all’ are unlikely to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student body.

A corollary of this idea is that if curricula are designed with flexibility in mind they are likely to provide access to education without the need for individual adaptations.


UDL is based around three core elements:

Flexibility in Representation (the way knowledge and information is shared);

Flexibility in Expression (the way in which assessment of learning is measured);

Flexibility in Engagement (ways that learners interact with the knowledge and information that gives them a sense of ownership and responsibility).

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