|We’re used to saying: ‘We are what we eat’ but what about ‘We are how we cook and talk about food’? In this event Dr Sarah Lawson Welsh, expert on Caribbean food and writing, explores how the use of a simple iron pot or ‘duchy’, originally introduced by the Dutch for use on slave ships and used by African slave populations in the Caribbean, gave rise to a richly varied culinary and oral storytelling tradition.
Heavy black cast-iron post, cauldrons and skillets are a mainstay of African-derived cuisines across the globe, producing meals as diverse as Brazilian Acaraje, Nigerian Accra Fun Fun, Caribbean Pepperpot and African American Soul Food such as fried chicken, cornbread and collard greens; similarly the flat skillet-like tawa, used for making roti, is a mainstay of Indian foodways in the Caribbean.
Dr Lawson Welsh examines how from the very beginning, food and words, cooking and storytelling were intimately linked. She’ll show how Caribbean cooks and writers developed a unique philosophy of life which saw them through times of famine, feeding, feasting and fasting and which enabled them to define and re-affirm different cultural, ethnic, caste, class and gender identities by writing about what, when and how they cooked and ate.
Culinary Cultures: Food and the Postcolonial
Lucy Dow (National Maritime Museum)
‘Food, Race and the Nation in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century British Printed Cookery Books.’
This paper will explore how cookery books tracked contemporary thinking about racial identity in eighteenth and nineteenth century Britain, and how race was configured in their ongoing exploration of what defined the nation and who could be part of it. Building upon Rebecca Earle’s discussion of the role of food in defining racial difference in early modern Latin America, I will start by looking at how eighteenth century cookery book authors used food to promote the stadial theories about race dominant in eighteenth century Britain.1 I will then go on to examine how cookery books reflected changing attitudes towards race in the first half of the nineteenth century. As Catherine Hall has highlighted by the mid-nineteenth century a version of racial theory had emerged that regarded different races as ‘organically distinct’ and not able to successfully integrate.2 These changing ideas about race were often explored in cookery books providing further evidence of how race became part of everyday life and how foodways were crucial to this quotidian understanding of race in Georgian and Victorian Britain. I will also highlight how it was in these discussions of the racial implications of food that some of the most overtly national sentiment was expressed by cookery book authors. Food changed from being seen as an agent in sustaining a national body to a reflector of levels of national civilisation, and this hierarchy was quickly imbued with ideas of discreet racial identities. Food cultures, the nation and racial identity came to be seen as inseparable and thus cookery books highlight how crucial and widespread ideas of distinct racial difference became to national identity by the mid-nineteenth century.
Astrid Schwegler Castaner, University of the Balearic Islands
‘“Tasting the Wide Ocean”: Planetary Conviviality against Tourists’ Consumption of a Commodified Exotic Elsewhere in Simone Lazaroo’s Sustenance.’
Simone Lazaroo’s novel Sustenance (2010) is set in the touristic location of Bali. This setting is particularly representative of the process of negotiation of tourists and hosts that reflect “broader attitudes, premised on racial, colonial and Orientalist discourses” (Sobocinska 2011: 193) as Bali is considered to be the primary international holiday destination for Australians, who are the “number one source market for visitors” (GIV 2014). The novel’s exploration of food in relation to identity displays the binary definition of Australian identity through its relation to Asia in general, and Bali in particular. As Robyn Morris points out, Lazaroo’s work “exposes the othering practices of white domination in Australia [and also] beyond its white-washed shores” (2010: 121). Foodways are used to portray the still existing Orientalist perception of Asia as the threatening and desirable other. The hotel Elsewhere —and Bali as a touristic destination— tries to “satisfy package tourists’ gross appetites” (64) by providing the consumable exoticism that they have bought through food, spiritual experiences and eroticism. Indeed, the touristic imagery abridges complexities while making “everything look exotic for the potential tourist” resulting in simplistic, homogenised and thus exaggerated portrayal of the destination country (Leong 1997: 88). Tourism thus blinds people’s interpretation of the realities of racism and intolerance through the consumptive celebration of difference. In addition to critically highlighting this process of touristic othering, the novel also challenges Orientalist perception in two ways.
Firstly, while the novel takes the culinary-themed format that usually presents difference in a palatable flavour through the commodification and exotization of ethnic minority cultures for mainstream readers that are “hungry to consume delectable renditions of alterity” (Mannur 2010: 14), Lazaroo opposes the readers in their consumption of both the Balinese other and the ethnic minority novel itself as exotic commodities by subverting tropes and making the readers as uncomfortable as the fictional tourists, who quickly flee from Bali at the end of the story. Secondly, Lazaroo hints at a possible solution through the hybrid character of Perpetua, the Eurasian and immigrant cook. When the hotel is invaded, Perpetua acts as an intermediary between the tourists and their captors, calming both by feeding them. The “subaltern cosmopolitanism” (Wilson and Lokugé 2016: 531) she displays through cuisine and her “round-shaped dishes” that Giffard-Foret argues are “allegorizing a vision of ‘planetary conviviality’” (2016: 599) challenge dominant discourse. The fact that almost all characters accept the food and “reject no part of it” means that they can then “taste the wide ocean that leads to every place in the world” (12), that is, they get closer to understanding what is the shared part of human experience through the commonality of food, which is crucial to overcome racism and intolerance.
Keywords: Australian identity, planetary conviviality, tourism, othering
Giffard-Foret, Paul. 2011. “Advance Australia Fear: Performing Feminised Asia in Simone Lazaroo and Hsu-Ming Teo’s Work.” Altitude: An E-Journal of Emerging Humanities Work 9: 1–13.
Giffard-Foret, Paul. 2016. “The Root of all Evil”? Transnational Cosmopolitanism in the Fiction of Dewi Anggraeni, Simone Lazaroo and Merlinda Bobis.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 52 (5): 595–609.
Global Indonesian Voices. 2014. “Bali, A ‘Dangerous’ Place for Australian Tourists?” Global Indonesian Voices. Accessed: 13 September 2017. http://www.globalindonesianvoices.com/12167/bali-a-dangerous-place-for-australian-tourists
Lazaroo, Simone. 2010. Sustenance. Crawley: UWA Publishing.
Leong, Laurence Wai-Teng. 1997. “Commodifying Ethnicity: State and Ethnic Tourism in Singapore.” In Tourism, Ethnicity and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies, edited by Michel Picard and Robert E. Wood, 71–98. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i.
Mannur, Anita. 2010. Culinary Fictions: Food in South Asian Diasporic Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Morris, Robyn. 2010. “Relations of Difference: Asianness, Indigeneity and Whiteness in Simone Lazaroo’s Fiction.” Kunapipi 32 (1): 116–129.
Sobocinska, Agnieszka. 2011. “Innocence Lost and Paradise Regained: Tourism to Bali and Australian Perceptions of Asia.” History Australia 8 (2): 193–216.
Wilson, Janet and Chandani Lokugé. 2016. “Introduction: Realigning the Margins: Asian Australian Writing.”
Sarah Irving, Edge Hill University
‘Consuming Palestine: neo-colonialism and the promotion of Palestinian agricultural products’
Food has become one of the many battlegrounds in the cultural war between the Palestinians and the State of Israel. Supporters of Palestine frequently express outrage at Israeli businesses and food writers claiming dishes from across the Middle East, such as hummus, falafel and shakshuka, as part of Israeli culture. At the same time, food has become a forum in which supporters of Palestinian rights express their solidarity, through buying the products of fair trade/Fairtrade initiatives which sell Palestinian olive oil and other agricultural produce in Europe, the USA and other parts of the world, and by visiting ‘slow food’, organic and fair trade projects and producers in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Such products are marketed in language which emphasises the authenticity of Palestinian rural culture, the ancient connection between the people and their land, and (implicitly or explicitly) the rights this confers in the ongoing political struggle in Israel/Palestine.
The language and imagery of the peasant and the rural/agricultural way of life is one which, paradoxically, permeates both Palestinian nationalist discourse and Orientalist presentations of Palestine and its people, going back to the nineteenth century. In the eyes of Western travellers and missionaries, ‘primitive’ Palestinian peasants were relics of the peoples of the Bible, offering insights into the ‘Holy Land’s’ past. To Zionist propagandists and British colonial administrators in the interwar period, however, the subsistence agriculture of parts of rural Palestine, and the stereotype of the peasant whose way of life had remained unchanged for millennia, were proof that Palestinian Arabs did not know how to manage the land ‘properly’ and profitably, and they had thus forfeited their right to own and govern it. European Jewish immigrants, by contrast, would bring technological innovation and the ‘modern’ methods of intensive agriculture, ‘improving’ the land and rendering it fertile, in line with Biblical promises. Rejecting this portrait of the rural population, Palestinian nationalists instead emphasised the peasant’s rootedness in the land and the longevity of peasant culture.
This paper seeks to unpick the strands of narratives of peasant authenticity and rural rootedness in the promotion of Palestinian agricultural products in the fair trade and solidarity markets, identifying the roots of these discourses in longstanding ideas about the Palestine rural populace. Whilst these ideas are presented as positive characteristics and deployed to inspire solidarity and spread messages of human rights and national sovereignty, I contend that their roots lie in altogether less empowering and self-determining narratives of Palestinian identity. As such, I argue that the use of such imagery and claims contains the danger of confining Palestinian identity to a narrow and unrepresentative range of markers, running the risk of imposing neo-colonialistic and ultimately counterproductive discourses on contemporary Palestinians and their search for decolonisation and sovereignty.
Shelley Angelie Saggar (Wellcome Collection)
‘”Memories from my mother’s kitchen”’: Extinction and anxiety in Joudie Kalla’s Palestine on a Plate.
This paper discusses how culinary memory belies anxieties over cultural and community extinction in Joudie Kalla’s 2016 cookbook Palestine on a Plate. Through the medium of instructive culinary literature, Kalla utilises the exotic appeal of ancestral memory to produce a text that has introduced Palestinian culture and cookery to mainstream circuits.
The marketing of Palestine on a Plate draws upon classical Orientalist discourse depicting a ‘disappearing Palestine’ as an indigenous culture in need of preserving. Building upon this, Kalla’s position as a female author on the edge of a culinary field dominated by men emphasise an essentialised connection to a vernacular female tradition of both cooking and crucially, feeding. I argue that these ‘soft’ forms of exoticism are an attempt at rebranding Palestinians and their culture, departing from familiar imagery of young, violent Muslim men as aggressors towards a more palatable image of women caring for others through a gendered culinary mythology.
I further examine the role of culinary memory in preserving culture as it appears in both metaphoric and material forms. In so doing I draw upon contemporary academic and activist debates that attempt to position Palestine as an indigenous population sharing significant commonalities with Fourth World communities in North America and elsewhere. Kalla’s insistence on preservation and cultural communication thus carries metaphorical weight as representative of a culture that is escaping both author and audience. I question whether this presentation of Palestine risks confining the continuing struggle for self-determination to history in popular understanding.
Through a close reading of the introductory author’s note alongside an evaluation of the marketing and presentation of the author herself in the launch campaign, I draw parallels between Kalla’s text and and other ‘ethnic’ chefs from controversial regions such as Sabrina Ghayour (Iran) and Yotam Ottolenghi (Israel) that have burst onto the life and style scene in recent years in order to place Palestine on a Plate within the framework of cultural resistance to xenophobia and, in particular, Islamophobia.
Published in the run up to a series of major anniversaries for the Palestinian movement in 2017, Kalla’s cookbook is simultaneously a site of resistance as well as an elegy to a culture that is confined to ever-narrower margins in the contemporary political climate. Debates on the naming of Palestine as ‘postcolonial’ invite a discussion of both the history of the British Mandate in Palestine, a period which marks Kalla’s ancestral memory as the moment at which her family were uprooted, as well as an imagining of what a future Palestinian space might be.
Alecia McKenzie (Caribbean writer)
‘Home is where the food is’
Through analysis, and a comparative reading of works, this paper (discussion / presentation) examines the way in which selected Caribbean writers use food to conjure home. It particularly looks at the descriptions of food in the novel Sweetheart (Peepal Tree Press, 2011, Winner of the regional Commonwealth Book Prize), and how some Caribbean readers living abroad have reacted to the descriptions of food, in letters to the writer. It further addresses the question of whether food plays as strong a role in cultural identity as language, music and other factors.
Razia Parveen (independent scholar)
‘Food narratives of nostalgia: diaspora, matrilineal and identity’
This paper will explore the links between nostalgia and cultural practices in creating a diasporic identity for a community displaced. I will show how immigrants continue practicing recipes and how these food practices work in order to retain a link to the homeland. I will further explore the notion of nostalgia and how food links the past to today. This paper will link in the idea of the continuation of this ’imagined homeland’ to communal diasporic identity. Salman Rushdie writes about ‘imagined communities’ and the notion of a homeland being recreated in the mind of the immigrant and I will link this idea to immigrants of South Asia who have migrated to the North of England. I will further link the notion of genealogy to food practices arguing that preserving cultural practices within the domestic sphere becomes the domain of the female such as food practices. This paper will also look at the traditional tools employed for some of the dishes and reveal how they connect to the idea of ‘authenticity.
Beth Kamunge, University of Sheffield
‘Local food will not dismantle the master’s house…?’
In recent years, more and more consumers have made efforts/aspired to eat local foods. The reasons for this include health concerns, environmental and animal welfare concerns, and/or issues to do with the taste and flavour of food. However, a growing body of research has cautioned against the idealised and uncritical framing of local food in academic literatures and popular culture. This has been particularly through an understanding of the politics of scale, particularly the principle of scale as a social construct. This paper aims to invigorate discussions of local food, using Audre Lorde’s oft-cited but under-explored metaphor of dismantling the master’s house using the master’s tools. Specifically I ask, to what extent is buying/eating local an attempt at dismantling the master’s house using the master’s tools? The paper is based on ongoing research in Black-Feminist food politics in Sheffield, UK, and was motivated by my participants’ (twelve self-identifying black women) enthusiasm for local food (variously defined).
Fifth Biannual Northern Postcolonial Network Symposium:
Culinary Cultures: Food and the Postcolonial
York St John University
Friday 5th May 2017
Convenor: Dr Sarah Lawson Welsh (York St John University)
09.00 – Arrival drinks & registration (Arts Foyer, South Quad Hall)
09.30 – 10.00 Keynote speaker – Dr Andrew Warnes (University of Leeds), “Authentic Inventions?: Diasporic Barbecue and the Complex Afterlives of Colonial Myth“.
Panel One: Food and Identity 10.00 – 11.00
Lucy Dow (National Maritime Museum) ‘Race and the Nation in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century British Printed Cookery Books’
Astrid Schwegler Castañer (University of the Balearic Islands), “‘Tasting the Wide Ocean’: Planetary Conviviality against Tourists’ Consumption of a Commodified Exotic Elsewhere, in Simone Lazaroo’s Sustenance”.
11.00 -11.15 Coffee break 11.15 -12.45 ‘Cook up’ with Keralan food educator Sharmini Thomas 12.45 – Lunch (Arts Foyer)
Panel Two: Palestine on a Plate 14.15 -15.15
Sarah Irving (Edge Hill University) ‘Consuming Palestine: neo-colonialism and the promotion of Palestinian agricultural products’.
Shelley Angelie Saggar (Wellcome Collection), “Memories from my mother’s kitchen”: Extinction and anxiety in Joudie Kalla’s Palestine on a Plate‘.
15.15 -15.30 Coffee break
Panel Three: Food, Home, the local 15.30 – 16.30
Alecia Mckenzie (Caribbean writer) “Home Is Where the Food Is”
Razia Parveen (Independent scholar) ‘Food narratives of nostalgia: diaspora, matrilineality and identity’
Beth Kamunge (Sheffield University), ‘Local food will not dismantle the master’s house…?’
16.30 – Plenary with Speakers and Q&A
16.45-17.00 Event finishes
17.30 Drinks and dinner at local restaurant (optional)
‘Culinary Cultures: Food and the Postcolonial’, Friday 5th May 2017, 9.30-4.45.
The academic study of food has undoubtedly been one of the growth areas of the last twenty-five years. However, Postcolonial studies has been relatively slow to embrace the study of culinary cultures and food histories in a postcolonial context. The contemporary popularity of Food Studies, both as an area of academic enquiry and in terms of a growing audience of more general readers, is evident from the burgeoning number of publications which cross these audiences and the growing appetite for cookery programmes and writing.
This symposium brings together papers on food and the postcolonial, across and between different disciplines, in order to make a significant contribution to this emerging strand of postcolonial food studies. Papers can consider food preparation, cooking and/or consumption in literary, filmic, sacred or visual texts, travel writing, advertising, life writing and oral histories, menus, cookbooks and cookery programmes, foodways and food histories, postcolonial ecologies and environmentalism, may focus on intergenerational differences, food memories and nostalgia or gustatory experiences and the politics of taste. The reach of papers may be territory-specific or global and especially welcome are those which consider the global dimensions of food and foodways.
How might we map a consideration of food onto the global connectedness and globalizing processes of colonialism and decolonization? What happens when food ‘travels’, and how do transnational and/or diasporic writers negotiate their identities through and with food? How do contemporary writers and/or artists navigate tensions between the local and the global, foodways of the past and of the present and how are concepts of culinary ‘tradition’ and ‘authenticity’ articulated in their works? How do postcolonial writers on food come to writing and what is their relationship with the audiences which ‘consume’ their works?
Former YSJU student, Jess Osborne, reviews the launch of the Symposium for ‘Culinary Cultures’. More pictures to follow!
Welcome to ‘Culinary Cultures’, the website for all things culinary, historical and cultural. Of course, that’s not all there is to the study of food and I welcome posts, comments and news of events from anyone interested in or working on issues relating to food. More coming soon!
Dr Sarah Lawson Welsh (Associate Professor, York St John University, York, UK)
You can contact me here and at: email@example.com
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